The Do's and Don'ts for Preparing a Successful Installation

Check the table below for a quick overview and suggestions on how to prepare your material for an effective strain gauge installation.

Concrete
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Pretreatment
Cleaning
Primer
Adhesive
Notice
Concrete with different grain sizesCast with dry molds: remove concrete laitance;
Cast with oil molds: oil-soaked layer must be removed; 
Blow off grinding dust with oil and water-free compressed air;
Degreasing with solvent is not recommended
 - X60Concrete requires a strong pore-filling adhesive
Fiber-reinforced plastics
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Pretreatment
Cleaning
Primer
Adhesive
Notice
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRP)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenSoapy1) water,
rinse with deionized water
 -Z70, X60, X280
depending on resin
EP150, EP310N
Do not damage carbon fibers when sanding.
Do not use organic solvents for cleaning.
Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenSoapy1) water,
rinse with deionized water
 -Z70, X60, X280
depending on resin
EP150, EP310N
Do not damage glass fibers when sanding.
Do not use organic solvents for cleaning.


1)
Soaps used must not contain silicones

Glass
Pretreatment
Cleaning
Primer
Adhesive
Notice
Silicate glass, glazed porcelain, enamelDegreased glass surface can be bonded directly;roughening or other preparations are not necessaryRMS 1 -X60 or Z70 -
Plastics
Pretreatment
Cleaning
Primer
Adhesive
Notice
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized water    Z 70, X 280 
Polyimide (PI)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70, X 60, X 280
EP 310 N, EP 150
 
Polyamide imide (PAI)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70, X 60, X 280
EP 310 N, EP 150
 
Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol Z 70, X 60, X 280Also only bondable with dichloromethane
Polycarbonate (PC)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol
 
 Z 70, X 60, X 280Also only bondable with dichloromethane
Polyamide (PA)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70, X 60, X 280In case of adhesion problems pretreat with hydrogen peroxide
Polypropylene (PP)Roughen wet, emery cloth grain size 220 -300
and/or plasma treatment with oxygen
RMS 1Sicomet, Power-Primer 1®Z 70, X 280PP is very low-energetic,
and as a result exhibits poor adhesion
Powerprimer shows good results (without roughening, cleaning only)
Polyethylene (PE)Roughen wet, emery cloth grain size 220 -300
and/or plasma treatment with oxygen
Isopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized waterSicomet, Power-Primer 1®"Z 70, X 280PE is very low-energetic, and as a result exhibits poor adhesion
Powerprimer shows good results
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized water Z 70, X 60, X 280With softener content >50%
no permanent adhesion possible
Polyurethane (PUR)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenSoapy1 water, rinse with deionized water Z 70, X 60, X 280 
Epoxy resin (EP)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70, X 60, X 280 
Fluoropolymers (PTFE, FEP, PFA)Activate surface with Tetra Etch®Warm water, Acetone Z 70 
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70 
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70 
Polyester (UP)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized water Z 70, X 60, X 280 
Polyaryletherketones (PEEK, PEK)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70, X 280
EP 310 N, EP 150
 
Polystyrene (PS)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized water  Z 70, 
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70, X 280
EP 150, EP 310 N
 
Polyethersulfone (PES)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapywater, rinse with deionized water Z 70, X 280
EP 150, EP 310 N
 
Polysulfone (PSU)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized water Z 70, X 280
EP 150, EP 310 N
 
Polyoxymethylene (POM)Plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized water  Z 70,Roughening has little effect
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized water  Z 70, 
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenIsopropanol or soapy1 water, rinse with deionized water  Z 70, 
Phenol formaldehyde resin (PF)Roughen, emery cloth grain size 220 -300 or plasma treatment with oxygenRMS 1 Z 70, X 60, X 280
EP 310 N, EP 150
 
Rubber
Pretreatment
Cleaning
Primer
Adhesive
Notice
RubberLight roughening, emery cloth grain size e.g. 300Soapy1) water, rinse with deionized water -X60 or Z70Strain measurements might be problematic due to strain suppression resulting from the reaction force

1) Soaps used must not contain silicones

Wood
Pretreatment
Cleaning
Primer
Adhesive
Notice
WoodDry grinding with glass or flint paperBlow off grinding dust with oil and water-free compressed air -X60Wood requires pore-filling adhesive

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