Microphones for Acoustic Measurements

HBM together with Brüel & Kjær (part of HBK) offers a broad spectrum of acoustic measurement solutions that respond to varying needs and applications. This adaptability is evident in the range of microphones designed for specific environments, industries, tasks and conditions, as well as general purpose instruments that provide a wide operational range.

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Free-Field Microphones

Free-field microphones are particularly suitable for performing measurements away from reflecting surfaces, for example, when making outdoor measurements with a sound level meter, or in an acoustically well‐damped indoor environmentsuch as an office with natural acoustic damping.


Pressure-Field Microphones and Surface Microphones

A pressure-field microphone is best suited for measurement of the sound pressure in a small closed couplers or close to hard reflective surfaces. A special class of pressure microphones is Brüel & Kjær’s surface microphone, which due to its unique geometrical dimensions, can bemounted directly on surfacessuch as the skin of an aeroplane or the surface of a car, for easy measurement of the true pressure fluctuations.

Diffuse-Field Microphones

A diffuse-field microphone, also called a random‐incidence microphone, is designed to have a flat response when signals arrive simultaneously from all directions. They should, therefore, not only be used for making measurements in reverberation chambers, but also in all situations where the sound field is diffuse,or where several sources contribute to the sound pressure at the measurement position. Examples include indoor measurements where the sound is reflected by walls, ceilings, and objects in the room, or measurements made inside a car.

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Laboratory Standard Microphones

The most used laboratory standard microphones are Types 4160 (1‐inch) and 4180 (1/2‐inch). These microphones have a well‐defined cavity in front of the diaphragm and are optimized for use in couplers and for maximum long‐term stability under reference conditions. The most common way of performing primary calibration of laboratory standard microphones is to use the reciprocity calibration principle. Brüel & Kjær offers the world’s most used reciprocity calibration apparatus, Type 5998, which is part of Reciprocity Calibration System Type 9699.
Brüel & Kjær laboratory standard microphones Type 4160 (1-inch) and 4180 (1/2-inch) constitute sound pressure references with a primary (reciprocity) calibration. They comply with standards:

  • IEC61094-1, ANSIS1.15-1
  • IEC61094-2, ANSIS1.15-2
  • IEC61094-3

All Microphones at a Glance on BKSV.com 

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