Angular filters
The CASMA filter (Crank Angle Sampled Moving Average) works in angular synchronism and is time independent, thus allowing to automatically respond to RPM changes.
The torque signal in tests of combustion engines exhibits dynamic behavior. The reason for this is vibrations and oscillations caused by the working cycles of each individual cylinder. These dynamic, periodically oscillating torque components are superimposed over the actual torque measurement.
The CASMA filter (Crank Angle Sampled Moving Average) works in angular synchronism and is time independent, thus allowing to automatically respond to RPM changes. This filter does not work in the time domain. Instead it works synchronously to the angle.
In this article you will learn how to apply the CASMA filter in HBM's TIM-PN, TIM-EC and PMX signal conditioning systems.
To ensure reliable control, the noisy signal must be filtered or smoothed. Filters such as Bessel or Butterworth work time-synchronously with low-pass characteristics.
The CASMA filter (Crank Angle Sampled Moving Average) works in angular synchronism and is time independent, thus allowing to automatically respond to RPM changes.
The TIM-EC and TIM-PN torque interface modules offer an integrated web server. In this browser-based software you can use all of the relevant settings for using the CASMA filter.
The required filter parameters are entered via the HTML page and checked for plausibility. The entry point to the CASMA filter is integrated into the "Units and filters" menu.
Parameterization characteristic | Function |
Angle divider | Reduces the angle resolution, thus allowing higher rotational speeds in the same window width |
Angle range (degrees) | Angle range (window width) over which the moving average operates |
Pseudo speed (rpm) | After the rpm speed, pseudo pulses or a pseudo speed are generated. Otherwise the filter would stop working and the measured value would freeze. |
Information area feature | Function |
Maximum rotational speed (rpm) | The angle pulses/s must be less than the sampling rate of the torque measurement. Otherwise the average would be formed via the same measured value. |
Pulses per revolution | Comes from the number of increments, and the analysis. With active quadrature analysis, the angular resolution is quadrupled |
Angular resolution in degrees | Calculated from the number of pulses per revolution and the divider |
Number of averaged values | Computes the number of measured values used to form the moving average |
Create a new calculated channel “rotation synchronous filter” in the Analysis category.
The window width can be easily determined experimentally by projecting the periodic time on the disturbance to the angle of rotation (see screenshot). In this example, there is a periodic disturbance every 720°.
The theoretical value is derived by: Maximum rotational speed = resolution * overall update rate / 6.
For practical purposes you should use values that amount to only 10 to 20% of this theoretically possible maximum rotational speed.
Resolution | The theoretical maximum rotational speed at an overall update rate of 19,200 Hz | The theoretical maximum rotational speed at an overall update rate of 38,400 Hz |
1° | 3200 rpm | 6400 rpm |
2° | 6400 rpm | 12,800 rpm |
4° | 12,800 rpm | 25,600 rpm |
6° | 19,200 rpm | 38,400 rpm |
8° | 25,600 rpm | 51,200 rpm |
The following multiples of the rotational speed are suppressed depending on the window width:
Window width | Multiples |
90° | 4, 8, 12, … |
120° | 3, 6, 9, … |
180° | 2, 4, 6, … |
360° | 1, 2, 3, … |
720° | 0, 5, 1, 1, 5, … |
Note: If one of the source signals is invalid, the output signal will be invalid as well.
You will see the unfiltered torque signal which is red, and the filter torque signal filtered using CASMA in green.
It can be seen clearly that the CASMA filter achieves excellent stabilization of torque measurements in correlation to the engine speed, which also changes over time. The greater the width of this filter, the better the results.
In this short example, PMX is used for analyzing power P[W], rotational speed n [1/s] and acceleration [1/s²], in addition to torque M [Nm] and the corresponding CASMA filter. The calculated channels as shown in the screenshot below have been created for this purpose. The signals are displayed in catman.
Power:
Angular speed:
Angular acceleration:
Important: For all calculations the rotation speed n has to be converted from revolutions per minute to revolutions per second, i.e. divided by 60.
Please see below for all channels displayed graphically in catman. The colors in brackets refer to the colors of the curves. The signals consist of the following channels:
Torque M (red):
CASMA filter (green):
Power P (yellow):
Rotational speed n (orange):
Angular acceleration (blue):